# discrete mathematical structures - .discrete mathematical structures . ... discrete mathematics and

Post on 06-Sep-2018

290 views

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

Discrete Mathematical Structures Dr. Kamala Krithivasan

Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Lecture - 1 Propositional Logic

This course is about discrete mathematical structures. It is a theoretical course intended for B. Tech or B. E. students in computer science in the second semester. What are the things we are going to study in this subject? First of all what is discrete mathematics and what are the topics to be covered here? Discrete Mathematics is a study of discrete structures which are abstract mathematical models dealing with discrete objects and their relationship between them. The discrete objects could be like: sets, permutations, graphs, FSA, etc. We will see in a minute, what are the topics to be covered here? And why do we want to study Discrete Mathematics and why should one study this subject? (Refer Slide Time: 05:02)

The reason is, in many fields of computer science, basic mathematical concepts will be used and in any books on them when such a concept is introduced they will not explain it in detail but briefly mention a few lines about it. But for a student to understand the subject completely it may not be enough. At the same time, one need not go in-depth in this subject also. One need not learn this subject as a mathematical student could learn Algebra or analysis. You want to know something about each topic to a decent depth and that will help to understand the other subjects in computer science in a better way. The aim of this course is not only make people learn about these topics, but also help them to develop the habit

1

of thinking mathematically. The student should develop to think in a mathematical manner. That is the aim of this course. What are the applications or what are the fields in which this these concepts will be used? They are plenty; in fact in each and every subject in Computer Science some where or the other these concepts will be used. For example, when you want to study programming, after writing a program you would like to check that if it is correct and you want to prove it, so proving programs correct is a topic which will be studied in this course which will help you to write correct programs. And in artificial intelligence lot of ideas about Logic will be used. Prolog is a Logic programming language where the resolution principle is used and we will learn about these in this subject. And in computer networks lot of concepts about graph theory and final state automata are used, so that will be very useful there. In fact you can find that in any field you will have a few concepts from discrete mathematics which will help you to understand the subject in a better manner. In compilers you learnt final state automata concepts will be used, cramer concepts will be used, hash functions should be used and these are studied in this subject. And now what are the topics which will be covered in this subject? (Refer Slide Time: 05:25)

We will be studying about Logic, sets, relations, functions, graphs, combinatorics, recurrence relations, algebras and FSA. The layout of the subject will be like this.

2

(Refer Slide Time: 06:15)

First nine lectures will be devoted to Logic and its applications. Then three lectures will be on sets. Actually this subject does not pre-suppose any prior knowledge from the student except a reasonable mathematical maturity expected of a high school student. That is the only thing we assume and proceed with this subject, In fact after learning this subject the student should be able to think more mathematically and also should have acquired a basic knowledge about these topics. Then we go on to relations. In relations, first we have lecture 13, then afterwards we shift to graphs from lecture 14-17, then again come back to more properties of relations from 18-23. (Refer Slide Time: 07:15)

3

Then the last lecture will be about lattices which are also about partially ordered sets. We will learn certain basic facts about graphs in lecture 14-17, then we will learn about functions in lecture 24-26, then a few lectures on combinatorics where we will be studying about pigeon hole principle, permutation and combination, and generating functions. Recurrence relation is another topic which is of importance especially in algorithmic analysis. (Refer Slide Time: 07:18)

We spend three lectures on them, and then we will study a little bit about algebras where we study about groups, semi groups, rings, etc and about finite state automata. We have two lectures where we study only the basic principles of final state automata.

4

(Refer Slide Time: 08:00)

We shall give some reference books for the subject. Some of them are new and some of them are old. But, there have been recent editions of them, Elements of Discrete Mathematics by C. L. Liu and the second one is Discrete Mathematical Structures with Applications to Computer Science by Tremblay and Manohar. These are standard books. (Refer Slide Time: 08:00)

Discrete Mathematics in Computer Science by Stanat and McAllister is another book. Discrete Mathematics and its Application by Rosen,

5

(Refer Slide Time: 08:33)

Logic and Discrete Mathematics by Grassman and Tremblay has some concepts about prolog and application of Logic to that. Introductory Combinatorics by Brualdi is a book that can be used to study some topics of Combinatory. Modern Applied Algebra by Birkhoff and Bartee is an old book but it has got some good concepts about Lattices and Final State Automata, Mathematical Theory of Computation by Manna is another book which will be useful for proving programs correct. (Refer Slide Time: 09:27)

6

(Refer Slide Time: 09:32)

Introduction to Combinatorial Mathematics by Liu is an old book but still it has got some very good topics: permutation and combination, generating functions, recurrence relation etc. Then for Automata Theory this book can be used Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages and Computation by Hofcroft Motwani and Ullman are some of them among the few books. There are so many other books also. Any student studying this subject can use the prescribed book by the respective University or College. Now we shall go on to the first topic Logic. Logic is a very useful topic. Every student in Computer Science should learn this topic because it is applied in proving programs correct in data bases where you study about relational algebra and relational calculus and also in artificial intelligence about reasoning and things like that. So, first, coming to Logic, there will be 9 lectures on Logic. They are divided like this:

7

(Refer Slide Time: 10:33)

The first 2 lectures will be devoted to Propositional Logic, then we go on to Predicate Logic, then Logical Inference, then Resolution Principle, then Methods of Proofs, Normal Forms and 1 lecture on Proving Programs Correct. (Refer Slide Time: 10:46)

So let us start first with Logic and Propositional Logic.

8

(Refer Slide Time: 10:53)

What is Propositional Logic? So for that first we have to start with what is a proposition. In English language we talk about sentences, we talk about assertions, we talk about orders, questions and so on. What is a proposition? First of all it should be an assertion. An assertion is a statement. (Refer Slide Time: 13:04)

It is different from asking a question or giving an order, the proposition is an assertion which is either true or false but not both. So you must be able to associate a truth value with an assertion.

9

(Refer Slide Time: 16:08)

The truth value will be false or true. Usually you denote false by 0 and true by 1. So to any sentence or to any assertion to which you can associate a truth value is called a proposition. Consider the following examples: the following are propositions, 4 is a prime number, it is an assertion but it is a false statement. So the truth value associated with 4 is a prime number is false. Then take the next sentence, 3 plus 3 is equal to 6. Again, it is an assertion and it is a correct statement. So the truth value associated with that is true. The moon is made of green cheese or the moon is made of cheese. This is again an assertion and a wrong statement. So the truth value associated with that is false. Let us see what are not propositions. (Refer Slide Time: 14:53)

10

Consider the statement X plus Y greater than 4, is it true or false? It depends on what value you are going to give for X and Y. If you give X the value 2, Y the value 2, then 2 plus 2 is greater that 4, is not correct. Or, if I give the value X is equal to 3, Y is equal to 4, then it takes the value 3 plus 4 is greater than 4, that is 7 is greater than 4 which is correct. So, depending on the value you give for X and Y the statement takes a true or a false value. It does not have a unique value, it depends on the value you are going to give for the variables X and Y. X and Y are called individual variables. So you cannot associate a unique truth value to this. Next, take the sentence X is equal to 3. Here you find that you cannot associate a truth value to this. If you give the value 3 to X it will be true, if you give some other value to X, it will not be true. So again this is not a proposition. Take the next one, are you leaving? This is not an assertion. A proposition should be an assertion. Are you leaving is a question and it is not an assertion. So it is not a proposition. Take the next one, buy 4 books, this again is not an assertion, it is an order, go and buy 3 books, this is an order and not an assertion